Marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States: History, current status and future trends
Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are diverse phenomena involving multiple. species and classes of algae that occupy a broad range of habitats from lakes to oceans and produce a multiplicity of toxins or bioactive compounds that impact many different resources. Here, a review of the status of this complex array of marine HAB problems in the U.S. is presented, providing historical information and trends as well as future perspectives. The study relies on thirty years (1990–2019) of data in HAEDAT - the IOC-ICES-PICES Harmful Algal Event database, but also includes many other reports. At a qualitative level, the U.S. national HAB problem is far more extensive than was the case decades ago, with more toxic species and toxins to monitor, as well as a larger range of impacted resources and areas affected. (...)
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Anderson, Donald M.; Fensin, Elizabeth; Gobler, Christopher J.; (...); Smith, Juliette L.; and et al, Marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the United States: History, current status and future trends (2021). Harmful Algae, 102, 101975.